Invisible University
aa1971@wayne.edu



 


  This site is an enquiry into the post-paleolithic development of the primate homo sapiens--of culturally, historically, and politically-based developmental differentiation and divergence that is qualitative as well as quantitative, and which, as Mary Midgley (The Solitary Self: Darwin and the Selfish Gene, p. 52) has noted, can be called "pseudo-speciation."  This extraordinary variation is both cognitive and psychological, ontogenetic and phylogenetic, and context-dependent. In its approach to this variation this site is, among other things, the antithesis of the prevailing racisms, liberal as well as fascist.  The axis around which this site revolves is The Quantum Heterogeneity of Dasein: 5 Genetic Ontologies (QHD-5).  It should be looked at now.  This site is a rhizome: an assemblage of linked pages, and links to videos, texts, and data-bases.  This site is embedded in cognitive-textual fields determined by two rules: the Cassirer inclusion rule, and the Margolies exclusion rule.  QHD-5 is such a cognitive-textual field.

Figure 1 is only technically about cognitive variation.  While much has been made over the past dozen years of the abysmal showing of the United States, the results of the 2012 tests, while confirming the wretched relative position among the advanced industrial nations of the U.S., provide a glimpse into our global "postmodern" future.  The sharp decline in the scores of Finland and Sweden, and the significant decline of the scores of the Anglo-Saxon nations, suggests that the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries are where two lines of development--sociotechnical advance and cognitive regression--clash. Capitalism--at least advanced capitalism--requires advanced minds. Narcissistic regression--the culture of consumption (see Hall et. al., Criminal Identities and Consumer Culture)--undermines the very possibility of advanced cognitive development.  Ominous as this sounds, this is still the rather cheery picture of the Vygotskyans.

But Figure 1 also has a dark side.  Cognitive and bio-emotional issues can be addressed as seperate analytical fields, but only if these approaches are dialectically related in the construction of a comprehensive view of Dasein that captures the moment.  In the context of
QHD-5 the development of the advanced cognitive powers that is the essence of the enlightenment trajectory is subverted by the political mobilizations of ressentiment and of primate modalities, and the entropic consequences of the nihilism that is the essence of post-modern capitalism.

(See the PISA Results: Evolutionary, Historical, Developmental, and Psychological Perspectives)
         Figure 1.  PISA Math Scores, 2003 - 2012: 25 Nations
      p62
      NCES, Highlights PISA 2003,  p. 14     NCES, Highlights PISA 2009,  p. 18
       NCES, Highlights PISA 2006,  p. 12     OECD 2013 Key Findings,  p.5

Southeast Asian nations are in light blue; Scandinavian nations + Switzerland in dark blue; Anglo-Saxon nations in orange; France, Germany, Belgium and Poland in green; Italy, Port-
ugal and Spain in brown; the United States in red.   These are the advanced capitalist nations
(some have been omitted for the sake visual clarity).

Also see Figures 2 and 3 in The GOP as the Stupid Party? An Inadequate Conceptualization
Bobby Jindal, who  used "stupid" to characterize the Republican Party on January 24, 2013, was referring to the sado-sexual rhetoric of, among others, Tod--"legitimate rape"--Akin, and Richard--"rape is God's will"--Mourdock.  The opportunistic use of sado-sexual rhetoric is in itself is not necessarily stupid, even if its appeal is to the cognitively challenged.  Nevertheless, the rhetorical performativity of the GOP is primitive (gestural and pre-operational), and serves to retard the cognitive development of those subsumed under its semiotic domain. But the sadism of the GOP's appeal is part of a global historical phenomenon.  Instead of enlightement reason we have a triumphant politics of ressentiment that we can now see, in hindsight, includes the ultranationalism of the late 19th century, the fascism of the last century, and the "tea parties" of this century. To be clear: the fusion of religious fundamentalism with sadism is a global phenomenon, from Afghanistan, Iraq and India through all of Europe to the Americas.     The question of ressentiment and fascism is raised in The GOP as the Stupid Party: An Inadequate Conceptualization, and Resentiment and the Mechanisms of Defense, where I apply psychoanalytic methods and concepts to understanding the persistence and resurgence of fascism, the dominant ethos of the GOP "base."  Fascism is also the dominant ethos in Israel, Russia and the Ukraine, and is a powerful presence in Europe.  In this regard two books by the psychologically astute journalist Max Blumenthal are essential: Goliath: Life and Loathing in Greater Israel (Nation Books, 2013), and Republican Gomorrah: Inside the Movement that Shattered the Republican Party (Nation Books, 2009).  Needless to say, progressives of all stripes, who a century ago were an ascending force optimistic about the future, are now dumbfounded, perplexed and depressed in the face of what was once an unimaginable barbarism now become almost banal (think Sarah Palin).  

I sugggest here that there is a persistent existential catastrophe manifested in fascism, or better, to use Nietzsche's term, ressentiment. Usually something that is catastrophic is seen as a cataclysmic event rather than a persistent condition.  But that all depends upon the level of analysis chosen.  At the level of the organism homo sapiens historicus--post-paleolithic man--life is an series of catastrophes--eternal recurrence, repetition compulsion, mechanisms of defense . . .  The perpetual work of adaptation to power, and the tremendous range of possibilities opened up by the increasing symbolic and institutional complexity of Dasein, give us our being in the world, fractured, dynamic, creative, stagnant, withdrawn, explosive, gregarious, autistic, etc. Ernest Gellner has written a very intersting book--The Psychoanalytic Movement: The Cunning of Unreason--in which he dismisses psychoanalysis as a cult whose therapeutic promise is a false one.  To which I respond, the failure of therapy (which is to greatly overstate the case, but I accept his premise for the sake of the point I am making) is hardly an indictment of a specific instantiation of the Second Copernican Revolution (page under construction). Attempts at therapy, whatever their outcome, leave us a record, among other things, of the persistent existential catastrophe that Nietzsche conceptualizes.  (In this regard, the books of existential psychoanalyst Carlo Strenger are of great interest.) (Click here for further comments on psychoanalysis ;and Gellner's strange text.)

It is in the theaters of ressentiment that include the politics of rage and identity that the organism's attempts to deal with this persistent catastrophe are on display.  Look again at The Stupid Party: that's the concrete, everyday stuff that I'm talking about.  And look at Ressentiment and the Mechanisms of Defense, which assembles key contemporary texts indicating that this persistent catastrophe can be traced at least as far back as the First Crusade.  To summarize: sado-sexual rage dominates the discursive practice of the GOP's relationship to its base.  This is the emotional side of right-wing politics, a bruitishness, a sado-sexual obsessiveness, that results in institutionalized violence . . . .  
a persistent existential catastrophe that Nietzsche diagnosed as ressentiment.  Marx was wrong; Nietzsche was right.  
from Nietzsche, The Geneology of Morals, II, 16:

Let us add at once that . . . the existence on earth of an animal soul turned against itself, taking sides against itself, was something so new, profound, unheard of, enigmatic, contradictory, and pregnant with a future that the aspect of the earth was essentially altered.  Indeed, divine spectators were needed to justice to the spectacle that thus began and the end of which is not yet in sight . . . .  From now on, man . . . gives rise to an interest, a tension, a hope, almost a certainty, as if with him somethin were anouncing and preparing itself, as if man were not a goal but onl a way, an episode, a bridge, a great promise.


from Nietzsche, The Geneology of Morals, II, 22:

Oh this insane, pathetic beast--man!  What ideas he has, what unnaturalness, what paroxysms of nonsense, what bestiality of thought erupts . . .

All this is interesting, to excess, but also of a gloomy, black, unnerving sadness, so that one must forcibly forbid oneself to gaze too long into these abysses.  Here is sickness, beyond any doubt, the most terrible sickness that has ever raged in man . . . .  There is so much man that is hideous!--Too long, the earth has been a madhouse!

from Nietzsche, The Geneology of Morals, II, 14:

Here the works of vengefulness and rancor swarm; here the air stinks of secrets and concealment;  . . . and what mendaciousness is employed to disquise that this hatred is hatred!  What a display of grand words and postures, what an art of "honest" calumny!


The GOP as the Stupid Party exemplifies the Hegelian-Deleuzian ethos of this site: in Deleuzian terms, that page is a plane of immanence, a dialectical dance of the concrete and the abstract, also know as transcendental empiricism.  (see philohistory and difference and givenness)

The second big question involves not violence, rage, and racism, but Nihilism (Nietzsche): Regressive Narcissism and the culture of consumption (Hall et. al.); repressive desublimation (Marcuse); and the last man (Nietzsche)--or, in a word, Entropy.  It's story might be entitled The Incredibly Shrinking Self, or The Incredible Smallness of Being. This page--Nihilism--is as yet only a crude assemblage of texts and images.  But Nihilism is a critical issue in the page that belongs to Figure 1:  The PISA Results: Evolutionary, Historical, Developmental, and Psychological Perspectives.
The term "human nature" is bandied about for the most part as a rhetorical maneuver

see PISA


  But there is also a dialectically linked cognitive side, which is adressed next.

The GOP as the Stupid Party--which focuses on what should be seen as the praxiological, context-dependent cogntive inferiority of the GOP's rhetorical performativity--shows what happens if you take a fundamentally anti-racist approach to the issue of cognitive inequality, a word--inequality--which will henceforth be dispensed with since it is both an expression of Cartesian presuppositions and a reduction of questions of power, structure and history to a child's moral sensibilities. Political correctness dictates the avoidance of such questions of variations in cognitive performativity (see Engeström and Miettinen), and there is a virtual taboo against speaking of Tea Party (that is, militantly white) cognitive performativity in such terms.  This is a field effect (Bourdieu) of racism.  Whether anti-communism as field effect is homologous with racism is still an open question.  In both cases demonization of the other and ideologically organized hatred are instruments of power.  They differ in the nature of the object, however. In racism, the object is the abject yet threatening other, envied for its primitive aliveness.  In anti-communism, the object is envied for its competence and power, its modernity and at-homeness-in-the-world.  Anti-communism is nothing more than the politically orchestrated rabid hatred of progressivism and the New Deal.

The Figure to the right summarizes the results of an analysis of the cognitive-emotional performativity of the public sphere.  My rough attempt to assemble the texts relevant to decoding the two-party discursive/performative domain can be found here and here.  A very crude summation of the three fields at the right would be image, fact, and concept, with the caveat that conceptual thinking is the sin of the left within bourgeois (2), and is not represented in this figure.
Fig. 2a. Cognitive Regimes: Topography of the Two-party system

           Bourgeois (1):  CNN/MSNBC            Bourgeois (2): Universities/NPR                             (modern corporation)                    (human capital, cultural capital)   
       Concrete Operational (and preop.)               Concrete Operational

field
   
     Preoperational (and gestural)                     

                                                       Ressentiment: Fox News (rentier sectors;  
                                                     provincial capitals;
racist political ecologies)

                          (I don't remember the source of this graphic.  I found it via a Google image search)


This site is built out of a series of immanent, densely "empirical" investigations of historical processes in which power and its consequences, and cognitive/psychological development and its consequences, are at issue.  So far this page has

To illustrate: in my investigation of the organization of the UAW in Detroit and Flint my informants frequently opposed my use of the standard ontologies of class and culture, and insisted instead on the importance of key individuals and small groups of workers not readily subsumable under the standard concepts of labor history.  Some of the interviewees also emphasized a developmental process generally absent from historical texts.  As the excerpt beneath the photo of Dodge Main from Nietzsche's Beyond Good and Evil suggests, an entirely different understanding of the events and processes that led to the creation of the UAW is required, an understanding that drive a stake into the heart of Marxist populism, while breathing new life into Leninist vanguardism . . .  but only if the latter is fused with Nietzsche's will to power and the übermensch, and with Hegel's Bildung.  

Dodge Main on Detroit's near east side, circa 1940
dm
The very same new conditions that will on average lead to the leveling and mediocritization of man--to a useful, industrious, handy, multi-purpose herd animal--are likely in the highest degree to give birth to exceptional human beings of the most dangerous and attractive quality.    

Friederich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil,  242

There is more to Figure 1 than meets they eye.  The whole of primate history generates figure 1.  According to Merlin Donald (right), the immediate performative potential of human beings is both a living archeological site and

Viewed, for the sake of argument, within a progressive framework, the "highest" levels  of cognitive development--scientific reason and formal operational cognitive competence--

But both primate and ressentiment modalities are also reflected in Fig 1.

Figure 1 is explicitly about cognitive development as an historical process, implicitly about the Enlightenment as a cultural-historical, cognitive-developmental inflection point in human history.  Figure 1 is also at issue in The GOP as the Stupid Party?  An Inadequate Conceptualization.

Fig 1 is not to be taken within the progressive enightenment ideology.

The GOP as the Stupid Party--which focuses on what should be seen as the praxiological, context-dependent cogntive inferiority of the GOP's rhetorical performativity--shows what happens if you take a fundamentally anti-racist approach to the issue of cognitive inequality, a word which will henceforth be dispensed with since it is an expression of Cartesian presuppositions. Political correctness dictates the avoidance of such questions of variations in cognitive performativity (see Engeström and Miettinen), and there is a virtual taboo against speaking of Tea Party (that is, white**) cognitive performativity in such terms.  This is a field effect (Bourdieu) of racism. Whether anti-communism as field effect is homologous with racism is still an open question.  In both cases demonization of the other and ideologically organized hatred are instruments of power--of the same (matrix of) power***.  They differ in the nature of the object, however.  In racism, the object is the abject yet threatening other, envied for its primitive aliveness.  In anti-communism, the object (is envied for its competence and power, its modernity and at-homeness-in-the-world) is progressivism qua new forms of capitalism**** (the New Deal).

The sharp decline in the scores of Finland and Sweden, and the significant decline of the scores of the Anglo-Saxon nations, suggests that the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries are where two lines of development--sociotechnical advance and cognitive regression--clash. Capitalism--at least advanced capitalism--requires advanced minds. Narcissistic regression--the culture of consumption (see Hall et. al., Criminal Identities and Consumer Culture)--undermines the very possibility of advanced cognitive development.  Of course this is a speculation based on mere data and theory, and no match for the desperate clutching at straws of the cognitive primitives who tout educational reform, which in practice means cultural violence against both teachers and students led by hedge funds (see the the Board of Success Academy in New York) and the right-wing noise machine.
  (see example 1 and example 2.)
Merlin Donald, "The mind considered from a historical perspective: human cognitive phylogenesis and the possibility of continuing cognitive evolution." In D. Johnson & C. Ermeling (Eds.) The Future of the Cognitive Revolution (Oxford University Press, 1997), pp. 360-61

mimetic representations are evident in human children before they acquire language competence. . . .  They continue to be important in adults, taking the form of highly variable social customs, athletic skills, and group expressive patterns (such as mass demonstrations of aggression or rejection).


Merlin Donald, A Mind So Rare: The Evolution of Human Consciousness (Norton, 2001):

 . . . modern culture contains within it a trace of each of our previous stages of cognitive evolution.  It still rests on the same old primate brain capacity for episodic or event knowledge.  But it has three additional, uniquely human layers: a mimetic layer, an oral-linguistic layer, and an external-symbolic layer.  The minds of individuals reflect these three ways of representing reality.  (p. 262)




But this progressive view is only half the psycho-cognitive picture.  The progressive view could retain plausibility through the New Deal and beyond, perhaps into the 1970s.  But by the second decade of the twenty-first century there has been too much barbarism, stupidity, and contraction of self to a pulsating blob of desires floating in a corporate-dominated semiotic stew--too much for the naive and by now archaic progressivism of our immediate predecessors.  It is Nietzsche who has given us the more appropriate conceptual and metaphoric framework for understanding what it is : the Quantum Heterogeneity of Dasein.

Barbarism, stupidity, and contraction of self: ressentiment, decognification, and nihilism.  These also enter into the equation, so to speak, that results in Figure 1.


"The superorganism account of human sociality:
How and when human groups are like beehives"

by Selin Kesebir

University of Virginia
September 26, 2011

Personality and Social Psychology Review. 2012 Aug;16(3):233-61. doi: 10.1177/1088868311430834. Epub 2011 Dec 27.
*See Jonathan Marks' review of New York Times science journalist Nicholas Wade's neo-racist A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History (Penguin Press, 2014).  Also see Revisiting Race in a Genomic Age (Rutgers, 2008).  Even better, see Marks' blog (anthropomics), as well as Jennifer Raff 's blog to keep up to date.  

** Elsewhere I deconstruct white into the severely, really, merely, and nearly white.

*** Power as concrete empirical networks of power--see Keynesian Elite.

**** Capitalism is a term that should be retired in favor of an empirically and theoretically more flexible and historical analysis of actually existing networks of power.

How We Became Human A Challenge to Psychoanalysis
                authors                            regimes, networks, ontologies
ff
On psychoanalysis and the semiotics of the two-party system (see Vincent)

The above excerpts from Dupré are consistent with Nietzsche's concept of the Will to Power and Hegel's concept of Bildung--the fourth genetic ontology of Dasein (see Bildung: Was Mozart a Communist?).  

Nietzsche was an in-your-face kind of guy, and his extravagant, confrontational, and arrogant rhetorical style, his hostility to "democracy", his contempt for the emerging form of life of mass society, and his appropriation by the Nazis (through his racist sister), and even worse, the strangely selective reading and misconstrual of Nietzsche's overall work by, for example, Mary Migdley and Roger Griffith (in order to make Nietzsche an aristocratic nationalist-racist they ignore his concept of ressentiment and his contempt for nationalism and anti-Semitism)--nevertheless, he describes with exquisite chutzpah the events and processes that one sees when one views the action--the organizational battles that led to the formation of the UAW--from the inside, immanently.

This judgement emerges from within the dialogic field (hence the concept of immanence--see Bourdieu) produced by my interviews of dozens of Übermenschen from Flint, Detroit's near east side (Dodge Main and vicinity, including my book on UAW Local 238/229--see Detroit's East Side, 19331944), Detroit's far east side (the Conner Avenue area--Packard, Hudson, Briggs, and Chrysler), and the Ford Rouge plant.  This judgement is confirmed by Nelson Lichtenstein's biography of Walter Reuther, which among other things is a detailed account of the events and processes of organizing on Detroit's west side.  Sidney Fine's account of the Flint Sitdown Strike is also extraordinarily detailed. Both of these books confirm Nietzsche's statement even if their authors might cringe at the thought.  BABSON
The excerpt below from John Dupré, "Causality and Human Nature in the Social Sciences," in Processes of Life: Essays in the Philosophy of Biology (Oxford, 2012), is one of the best summaries available of what could be called the Progressive view of human psycho-cognitive development: it can serve as an introduction to Figure 1.

It is . . . clear that recognition of the variety of factors involved in development makes possible a diversity of individual outcomes within even quite narrowly defined populations. (285)

 . . . the human mind . . . involves a new level of capacity to transform the world beyond the organism. (291)

If I simply act in pursuit of whatever passing whim is uppermost at the moment I exhibit no more causal power than any other animal.  If I choose to build a bridge, write a book, or cook dinner, and subordinate my choice of actions to this decision, I exercise to a greater or lesser degree a distinctively human ability to shape the world.  In the social realm, the ability to confrom to principle, above all moral principle, is the kind of regimentation of behaviour that constitutes a uniquely human achievement. (291)

 . . . it is the fitting of action into some kind of systematic pattern that distinguishes the truly free agent from one who merely has the ability to respond to the whim of the moment; and . . .  [what emerges is] the ontological picture of the human agent as an entity enabled to pursue complex goals or engage in patterns of action over time by the acquisition of a uniquely rich range of capabilities. (293)

I wish to emphasize particularly the ability of cultural evolution to transform the developmental niche.  And here, at least in contemporary developed countries, it seems clear that humans have learned in quite recent times to construct a remarkably novel environment for the development of their young. . . .  [T]hese prodigious changes to the human environment, concretizations of our rapidly evolving culture, profoundly affect the developmental resources available to growing humans.  For that reason their introduction should be seen as representing major evolutionary change. (284)

For more along these lines, see The PISA Results: Evolutionary, Historical, Developmental, and Psychological Perspectives.
The fourth genetic ontology of Dasein--Nietzsche's concept of the Will to Power and Hegel's concept of Bildung--is also critically important in understanding the Keynesian elite, the left-wing of the Roosevelt Administration (see The Keynesian Elite, 1910-1939, and Bildung: Was Mozart a Communist?).

from Bourdieu and Wacquant, An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology (University of Chicago, 1992)

[Bourdieu develops] "a sociological method consisting essentially in a manner of posing problems, in a parsimonious set of conceptual tools and procedures for constructing objects and for transfering knowledge gleaned in one area of inquiry into another.  'However important, the specific object of [this or that] research counts less . . . than the method which was applied to it and which could be applied to an infinity of different objects'"

Will to Power and Bildung--these concepts are drawn into the gravitational field of these two immanent domains: from within the dialogic field of the UAW interviews; and from within the diologic field of the Keynesian elite--the papers of MLC and the letters of LDB; the articles and discussion published in the Bull. of the T.S.

Will to Power and Bildung (WP) are also immanent in relation to the textual field of scholarship on Bolshevism.  Smith and Chrysler.

Again, WPB is central to educational practice in Finland (Finnish Lessons), and to the work of Lev Vygotsky.
Taylor Society I: Keynesian Elite in the New Deal State
ke
Source: "Membership List, May 1927," in the Morris L. Cooke Papers, box 66, FDR Library and
United States Government Manual 1937
Fascism: Ressentiment and the Mechanisms of Defense

To understand the central praxiological element in late nineteenth  to mid-twentieth century Progressivism--from Louis D. Brandeis to V. I. Lenin, and from the metalworkers of Detroit to the metalworkers of Petersburg--Bildung and the Will to Power, the fourth genetic ontology of Dasein--is critical.  To understand the modern right wing, also dating from the late nineteenth century but contining not only into the presnt but ito the future, we must turn to the third genetic ontology of Dasein: Fascism: Ressentiment and the Mechanisms of Defense


The axis around which this site revolves is
 
The Quantum Heterogeneity of Dasein: 5 Genetic Ontologies (QHD-5)

The link above is the antithesis of the Cartesian delusion so central to neo-liberal ideology.  Take a look at QHD-5 now, then continue.  The term Dasein is used to problematize homo sapiens as a species unlike any other, whose "nature" it is to be subject to cultural and historical development as a result of its own activity, to be subject to the psychological consequences of such processes (Nietzsche), and to be capable of embarking on projects whose objective is self- and societal-transformation (Hegel's Bildung and Nietzsche's Will to Power). 

Cognitive development is one of these fundamental transformations (see Figure 1 below), but it is not the only one.  Nietzsche's last man is neo-liberalism's ideal and all too real human, and it is this brute fact of contemporary life that sets the agenda for any praxis that could be called progressive and/or revolutionary in the twenty-first century. And ressentiment--another of Nietzsche's fundamental concepts that gets us to the heart of fascism--also denotes a fundamental transformation of Dasein. There is no point in reading any of this site's pages without keeping the above link in mind.  This site is a moment in the unfolding of the Second Copernican Revolution, and probably its swan song as well.
The axis around which this site revolves is
 

The Quantum H
eterogeneity of Dasein: 5 Genetic Ontologies (QHD-5)

The link above is the antithesis of the Cartesian delusion so central to neo-liberal ideology.  Take a look at QHD-5 now, then continue.  The term Dasein is used to problematize homo sapiens as a species unlike any other, whose "nature" it is to be subject to cultural and historical development as a result of its own activity, to be subject to the psychological consequences of such processes (Nietzsche), and to be capable of embarking on projects whose objective is self- and societal-transformation (Hegel's Bildung and Nietzsche's Will to Power).  

Cognitive development is one of these fundamental transformations (see Figure 1 below), but it is not the only one.  Nietzsche's
last man is neo-liberalism's ideal and all too real human, and it is this brute fact of contemporary life that sets the agenda for any praxis that could be called progressive and/or revolutionary in the twenty-first century. And 
ressentiment--another of Nietzsche's fundamental concepts that gets us to the heart of fascism--also denotes a fundamental transformation of Dasein. There is no point in reading any of this site's pages without keeping the above link in mind.  This site is a moment in the unfolding of the Second Copernican Revolution, and probably its swan song as well.

Thus, this site is an enquiry into the post-paleolithic development of the primate homo sapiens--of culturally, historically, and politically-based developmental differentiation and divergence that is qualitative as well as quantitative, and which, as Mary Midgley (The Solitary Self: Darwin and the Selfish Gene, p. 52) has noted, can be called "pseudo-speciation."  This extraordinary variation is both cogntive and psychological, ontogenetic and phylogenetic, and context-dependent.  (see Dupre, Causality and Human Nature in the Social Sciences.)  


Fascism: Ressentiment and the Mechanisms of Defense


The Keynesian Elite, 1910-1939


Minutes.  Murray Body Committee Local 2 at Executive Board Meeting, April 26, 1939, Toledo Ohio (Addes Collection, Box 14.11, Reuther Archives Detroit) re. competitive situation in the spring and wire industry

Detroit's East Side, 19331944 

Developmental Divergence

Philosophy and History (Deleuze's Transcendental Empiricism)
1.  the misuse of Nietzsche (Migdley, Griffith)
2.  Nietzsche and the UAW; Nietzsche and the New Deal; Nietzsche and bolshevism (who were Nietzsche's "blond beasts", in
3.  Nietzsche and racism, fascism
4.  Nietzsche and consumer culture (regresive narcissism)

Also see the interview of Jerome Kagan: Psychology Is In Crisis, and Kagan's The Human Spark: the Science of Human Development (Basic Books, 2013)]*